Oswald Moosmueller, O.S.B., as superior and the Benedictines bought 713 acres on Skidaway Island. 1272, d. 1348; founder of the Olivetans (1319). B. F. Pitra (France), b. St. Benedict did not, strictly speaking, found an order; we have no evidence that he ever contemplated the spread of his Rule to any monasteries besides those which he had himself established. According to the Rule he has to be trained and tested during his period of noviceship, and canon law requires that for the most part the novice is to be kept apart form the rest of the community. Feckenham, afterwards Abbot of Westminster under Queen Mary, was the last English Benedictine to graduate at Oxford (about 1537) until, in 1897, the community of Ampleforth Abbey opened a hall and sent some of their monks there to study for degrees. The Austrian, Bavarian, and Swiss congregations of the same period followed out the same idea, as do also almost all of the more modern congregations, and by the legislation of Leo XIII the traditional principles of government have been revived in the English congregation. J. In several countries old monasteries are re-founded or new communities created. Contact information. Hélyot enumerates several military orders as having been based upon that of St. Benedict or in some way originating from it. No other monasteries of the Bursfeld Union were ever restored to Benedictine use. A century later Lanfranc continued the same idea by issuing a series of statutes regulating the life of the English Benedictines. They desired that every house of the Order should be named in her honor and… Of the sixty-six monasteries suppressed in 1835, five have been restored, viz., Montserrat (1844), St. Clodio (1880), Vilvaneira (1883), and Samos (1888) by the Cassinese P. O. congregation, and Silos (1880) by the French monks from Ligugé. All these remained subject to the Portuguese superiors until 1827, when in consequence of the separation of Brazil from the Kingdom of Portugal, an independent Brazilian congregation was erected by Leo XII, consisting of the above eleven houses, with the Abbot of Bahia as its president. In the island of Mauritius the Bishop of Port Louis is generally an English Benedictine. The arbitrary rule of Joseph II of Austria (1765-90) and the French Revolution and its consequences completed the work of destruction, so that in the early part of the nineteenth century, the order numbered scarcely more than fifty monasteries all told. The founding of the Monastery of Saint Joseph, Ava, Missouri Bishop Rice of Springfield–Cape Girardeau blessed our new monastery before the first Mass, and gave a beautiful welcome to Mother Abbess and the foundresses. http://www.newadvent.org/cathen/02443a.htm 1462, d. 1516; Abbot of Spanheim, a voluminous writer and great traveller. O. S. B. Willibrord and Boniface, who preached the Faith, there in the seventh and eighth centuries and founded several celebrated abbeys. The English congregation is recruited very largely from the schools attached to its monasteries; and other congregations are similarly recruited. 1811, d. 1897; abbot; Vice-Archivist to the Holy See. Augustine Calmet (France), b. In Germany: Cologne, 689; Homburg and Strasburg, of the seventh century; Lindau, Buchau, and Andlau of the eighth century; Obermunster, Niedermunster, and Essen of the ninth century. This freedom with regard to enclosure gave rise, in course of time, to grave scandals, and the Councils of Constance (1414), Basle (1431), and Trent (1545), amongst others, regulated that all the professedly contemplative orders of nuns should observe strict enclosure, and this has continued to the present time as the normal rule of a Benedictine convent. So rapidly did the Faith spread in this country that between the years 740 and 780 no less than twenty-nine Benedictine abbeys were founded there. O. S. B. 1794, d. 1872; a monk of Downside; Vicar Apostolic of Mauritius (1832). Besides its regular prelates, the English congregations, by virtue of the Bull "Plantata" (1633), allowed to perpetuate as titular dignities the nine cathedral-priories which belonged to it before the Reformation, viz., Canterbury, Winchester, Durham, Coventry, Ely, Worcester, Rochester, Norwich, and Bath; to these have been added three more, Peterborough, Gloucester, and Chester, originally Benedictine abbeys but raised to cathedral rank by Henry VIII. Monasteries such as these often became in turn the centres of revival and reform in their respective neighbourhoods, so that during the tenth and eleventh centuries there arose several free unions of monasteries based on a uniform observance derived from a central abbey. In choir, at chapter, and at certain other ceremonial times, a long full gown with large flowing sleeves, called a "cowl", is worn over the ordinary habit. The Rule of St. Benedict has as its core community life with a balance of work and prayer. In 1899 Leo XIII raised the three priories of St. Gregory's (Downside), St. Lawrence's (Ampleforth), and St. Edmund's (Douai) to the rank of abbeys, so that the congregation now consists of three abbeys, and one cathedral-priory, each with its own community, but Belmont still remains the central novitiate and tyrocinium for all the houses. St. Bertin (France), b. The Splendor of Cluny. (9) The Congregation of St.-Vannes.—To counteract the evils resulting from the practice of bestowing ecclesiastical benefices upon secular persons in commendam, then rife throughout Western Europe, Dom Didier de la Cour, Prior of the Abbey of St.-Vannes in Lorraine, inaugurated in 1598 a strict disciplinary reform with the full approbation of the commendatory abbot, the Bishop of Verdun. Pius IX restored the congregation (1858) comprising the above houses, of which the Abbot of Metten is president. Scholars, historians, spiritual writers, etc. St. Augustine and his monks established the first English Benedictine monastery at Canterbury soon after their arrival in 597. The colour is not specified in the Rule but it is conjectured that the earliest Benedictines wore white or grey, as being the natural colour of undyed wool. In 1855 St. Vincent's, which had already founded two dependent priories was made an abbey and the mother-house of a new congregation, Dom Wimmer being appointed first abbot and president. The following new foundations were made: Conception Abbey, Conception, Missouri (1873), the abbot of the abbey being president of the congregation; New Subiaco Abbey, Spielerville, Arkansas (1878); St. Benedict's Abbey, Mount Angel, Oregon (1882); St. Joseph's Abbey, Covington, Louisiana (1889); St. Mary's Abbey, Richadton, North Dakota (1899); St. Gall's Priory, Devil's Lake (1893), the last two communities subject to the same abbot. The first establishment was at St. Mary's, Pennsylvania, where Abbot Wimmer settled some German nuns from Eichstätt in 1852; this is still one of the most important convents in the United States and from it many filiations have been made. It became a priory in 1880 and in 1896 an abbey. This article was transcribed for New Advent by Susan Birkenseer. In England there had been three distinct efforts at systematic organization. Since the thirteenth century every congregation has had its own set of constitutions, in which the principles of the Rule are adapted to the particular work of the congregation to which they apply. Some time was necessarily spent in preliminary preparations, and the first general chapter was held at Oxford in 1218, from which time up to the dissolution under Henry VIII the triennial chapters appear to have been held more or less regularly. 1840; Abbot of La Cava (1894); Archbishop of Benevento (1902). 1654, d. 1739. The Congregation of St.-Maur Pius VII or Barnaba Chiaramonti (Italy), 1800-23; was taken by force from Rome and imprisoned at Savona and Fontainebleu (1809-14) by Napoleon, whom he had crowned in 1804; returned to Rome in 1814. Lay brothers, Oblates, Confraters, and Nuns; III. The community of Solesmes have been expelled from their monastery by the French government no less than four times. The first convent of English nuns since the Reformation was founded at Brussels in 1598; and another was established at Cambrai in 1623 under the direction of the English Benedictine Fathers of Douai, from which a filiation was made at Paris in 1652. Wherever the monks went, those who were not employed in preaching tilled the ground; thus whilst some sowed in pagan souls the seeds of the Christian Faith, others transformed barren wastes and virgin forests into fruitful fields and verdant meadows. Bl. In the ninth century the papacy starts to protect some monasteries from the interference of noblemen and local bishops. 525 A.D.). In this way Ligugé, originally founded by St. Martin of Tours in 360, was restored in 1853, Silos (Spain) in 1880, Glanfeuil in 1892, and Fontanelle (St. Wandrille), founded 649, in 1893. After much difficulty the leaders succeeded in spreading their reform to two or three other houses, and these were formed into the Portuguese congregation by Pius V in 1566. 1861. . In Germany, Denmark, and Scandinavia the Lutherans acquired most of the nunneries and ejected their inmates. These two conditions of existence have survived to the present day; there are nine belonging to the first and over two hundred and fifty to the second category. THE TERM "religious order" usually implies an international structure in which common observance is maintained through submission to a single authority figure, usually a "superior general." Cassinese P.O. The Abbey of St. Hubert in Ardennes, which had been founded about 706 for canons regular but had become Benedictine in 817, was the first in the Low Countries to embrace the reform. Those that have schools attached to them naturally draw their members more or less from these schools. Richard of Wallingford at St. Alban's and Peter Lightfoot at Glastonbury were well-known fourteenth-century clockmakers; a clock by the latter, formerly in Wells cathedral, is still to be seen in the South Kensington Museum, London. It takes the form in different places of seminaries for ecclesiastical studies, schools, and gymnasia for secondary education not strictly ecclesiastical, or of colleges for a higher or university course. The "Association Laws" of 1903 again dispersed the congregation, the monks of Pierre-qui-Vire finding a temporary home in Belgium, those of Belloc and Encalcat going to Spain, and Kerbeneat to South Wales, whilst those of Béthisy and Saint-Benoît, being engaged in parochial work, obtained authorization and have remained in France. By 1860 a monastery had been erected and full conventual life established. Remy Lafort, S.T.D., Censor. No other monasteries of the Bursfeld Union were ever restored to Benedictine use. (c) Muri, founded 1027; suppressed 1841; but restored at Gries (Tyrol) 1845. There are thirty-four convents with nearly two thousand nuns, all of which have been founded within the last sixty years. What a treasure it is! The superior general and two others suffered in the massacre at the Carmes, 2 September, 1792. The Benedictines have been mired in controversy for 20 years following a series of revelations about sex abuse scandals at their prestigious private schools, Ampleforth, Downside, Worth and … All these colleges flourished until the Reformation, and even after the dissolution of the monasteries many of the ejected monks retired to Oxford on their pensions, to pass the remainder of their days in the peace and seclusion of their Alma Mater. The monks and nuns both kept the Benedictine Rule, to which were added some additional austerities. St. Thecla, eighth century; a nun of Wimborne; Abbess of Kitzingen; died in Germany. 1506, d. 1566; Abbot of Liessies (1530); author of the "Mirror for Monks". 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